Документы жизни и деятельности семьи Нобель том 1 - Мелуа А.И
Скачать (прямая ссылка):
As he suffered increasingly more from angina pectoris and respiratory illness, in 1887 Ludwig resigned from the Board of Trustees. Alfred Nobel resigned from the Board earlier in the same year. The responsibility for financial affairs of the company was taken up by Ludwig’s son Emanuel. On March 31, 1888 Ludwig Nobel died in Cannes and was buried in St. Petersburg on Smolenskoe Evangelic Cemetery. For his achievements in technical development of Russia Ludwig received Russian and foreign honorable awards. The St. Petersburg Practical Institute of Technology awarded him the honorary title of Technological Engineer, which was a very rare occasion. All the reforms on Nobel’s enterprises and all his inventions were made accessible to general public, and Nobel had not always pursued issue of privileges for each invention or innovation.
After the death of Ludwig Immanuelevich the management of the Nobel Brothers’ Oil Partnership and sales of dynamite (for Alfred Nobel) passed on to Ludwig’s elder son, 28-year-old Emanuel Ludwigovich, who entered the Partnership Council in 1885. The Mechanical Plant in St. Petersburg was headed by Ludwig’s second son, Karl Ludwigovich, who also promoted Alfred’s smokeless gunpowder. He placed an announcement of gunpowder in “St. Petersburg News” and urged Alfred to obtain a Russian patent.
Emanuel was born in St. Petersburg, and his father supervised his education in engineering and management. He studied in all seriousness, and when in 1888 Emperor Alexander III insisted that he become a Russian citizen, he obliged. Soon he was awarded the Order of St. Stanislav, the first award of the third degree. It was followed by a number of honorary titles, and he was elected member of various establishments. Emanuel was made Full Counselor of State, and an honorary counselor in commerce, and served as Deputy Chairman of the English-Russian Chamber of Commerce. He was also a member of the Union of Trade and Manufacture, Honorary Technological Engineer of the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, member of the Accounting Committee of St. Petersburg Division of the State Bank and Member of the Council of Volzhsko-Kamsky Bank. Together with his step-brothers Ludwig
12 Bulletin of Finance, Industry and Trade, 1879. V. 4, No. 45, p. 399.
13 Imperial Russian Technical Society Bulletin, 1897. V. 31, No. 11, p. 156.
Ludwigovich and Rolf Ludwigovich, Emanuel served as a member of the Committee of the Imperial Russian Automobile Society14. E.L. Nobel also held the post of the chairman of the board in a number of companies: Kolkhida Oil Industry and Trade Company, Nobel Brothers’ Oil Partnership, Ludwig Nobel Machine-Building Plant, Noblessner Shipbuilding Company. He was also a member of the Board at Alpha Nobel Partnership, Russian Lloyd Insurance Company, and the Russian Company of Gunpowder Manufacturing and Sales. After the death of his brother Karl in December 1893 Emanuel also headed the Nobel Brothers’ Oil Partnership and the Mechanical Plant.
His family thought of Emanuel as a capable financier and believed that he should focus on financial issues, but he was as much of a passionate inventor as his father. Emanuel also inherited his father’s purposefulness and diligence, thriftiness and ingenuity of the Nobels, which was obvious in all his industrial activities. In the period from 1905 to 1912 E.L. Nobel registered 9 patents in Russia. His first invention, “Lubrication Device” was submitted by Emanuel in 1901, and received Privilege No. 9785 in 1905 . This device could be placed in any position and was applicable for any liquids, and the number of drops of the lubricant could be counted.
Nobel’s Mechanical Factory was the first factory in Russia to make internal combustion engines, and for a long time was the only manufacturer of kerosene engines. Emanuel Ludwigovich worked incessantly on improving the engines, and closely monitored the work in this area abroad. In 1897 Rudolf Diesel received privilege No. 261 dated August 9, 1897 for his “Combustion Engines”15. Emanuel learned about this invention, studied its principles and realized that the future belonged to that type of engine. He negotiated with Rudolf Diesel about his invention. Most importantly, the engine could use crude oil as fuel. It was important for Russia, which had a lot of oil reserves, and which was very important for Nobel as a major player on the oil market. Emanuel purchased Diesel’s patent for exclusive use in Russia, that is, received monopoly rights to manufacturing diesel engines. Patent rights cost Nobel a lot of money: he paid some ?50,000 for the right to build new engines in Russia, about a half million rubles in gold. But after a careful studying of drawings he decided to introduce design changes to the engine. Re-designing and manufacturing took about a year, and the first engine was put into operation at L. Nobel’s factory in 1899. This was a four-cycle engine, which was not so convenient, and E. Nobel began work on a new two-cycle engine. In 1904 it was patented as “A Two-Cycle Scavenging Engine with the Air Compressed in the Crankcase,” and was issued privilege No. 13454 in 1908 . In 1907 he submitted an application for “Adaptations for Distributive Mechanisms for Reversible Multi-Cylinder Internal Combustion Engines,” and was issued privilege No. 21300 in 1912 . In 1908 E. Nobel submitted three applications for the “Reversible Distributive Mechanism for Internal Combustion Engines.” They had one safe-conduct document under No. 41524, and included the invention and later improvements into a single application. They were issued privileges on August 31, 1911 under numbers 19742, 19743 and 19744 [18, 19, 20]. Thus within several years Emanuel Nobel began investing much of his time and effort into designing and improving internal combustion engines which were later applied in various industries. They were used at power plants, in the military, on chemical and ship-building factories, and even at small mills, where a specially designed new model of the engine was used.