Документы жизни и деятельности семьи Нобель том 1 - Мелуа А.И
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The history of inventions of the Nobel Family began in 1843 when Immanuel Nobel and Nikolay Alexandrovich Ogarev built a factory “for mechanical manufacturing of cars and coach wheels”3. On February 17, 1843 they submitted a privilege petition for “Machinery for Mechanical Manufacturing of Wheels.” In April 1844 they received Privilege No. 8  and legally began to expand their growing plant: increased production output required expanding the grounds; a small factory could no longer cope with the load. In 1846 Immanuel Nobel built a modern mechanical factory in St. Petersburg, which soon became one of the largest enterprises of the city. Top-notch professionals were invited to the factory from Europe; at the time Russia yet did not have enough skilled workers to satisfy Nobel’s needs. The factory produced mines, metal products, machine tools, steam engines, centralized water heating systems invented by Immanuel, and other kinds of products. The talented inventor continued his creative endeavors, and in 1852 received his second Russian privilege for “Arranging Metal Frames with Counter Laths, Window Frames and Hand Rails for Staircases According to Submitted Drawings” under No. 10 .
Alfred Nobel was the first of Immanuel Nobel’s sons to pick up the invention race with his father. On May 7, 1867 he received patent No. 1345 in Great Britain for making dynamite in the form of “Nobel’s Safe Explosive Powder.” Then he patented his invention in other countries, in particular, in the USA (patent No. 78317 dated November 25, 1867), Sweden, France, Germany and other countries. The invention reached Russia after almost 9 years after it was invented. At that time Alfred Nobel had lived in France. Therefore, on May 7th 1876, F.F. Kaupe, Nobel’s representative (patent agent) in Russia, petitioned the Department of Trade and Manufactories to award Nobel the privilege for “A Method of Condensing Explosives for the Purpose of Obtaining a New Sort of Explosives” for a period of 10 years, and was awarded Privilege No. 55 on October 5, 1877 . For many years Alfred Nobel was involved in manufacturing explosives in more than 20 countries of the world. He also continued with his invention activities.
On March 18, 1894 Alfred Nobel submitted an application for the privilege regarding a method of obtaining artificial rubber, gutta-percha resin and leather and various varnishes made of nitrocellulose, its hydrates or oxides, for a period of 10 years4. No information could be found about the issue of the privilege. It possibly had to do with a fact that back at the time no privileges were issued in Russia for manufacturing chemical substances or inventing ways and means for their manufacturing.
1 The spelling of the Nobel family father and grandson follows the rules of Swedish orthography. See Osbrink, B. (2003). The Nobel Empire. Trans. from Swedish by T. Dobronitskaya. Moscow, Russia: Text Publishers, p. 8.
2 Additional information on the people named in the article in addition to Nobel Family members is listed in Appendix 2.
3 See Chernov, A.S. (2005). The Nobels: A View from the Old City of Tambov. V.M. Tyutyun-nik, Ed., International Nobel Center of Information. Tambov, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Baku, Vienna: Nobelistika Publishers, p. 106.
4 Imperial Russian Technical Society Bulletin, 1895. V. 29, No. 12, p. 122.
Two of the privileges related to the name of Alfred Nobel were jointly registered by Alfred Nobel estate administrators and Wilhelm Theodor Unge, a Swedish inventor. It became possible after enactment of “The Statutes of Privileges for Inventions and Innovations” on May 20, 1896. These Statutes were the most significant legal document of the Russian Empire in the field of protecting invention copyrights. According to Article 2 of the Statutes, “privileges for inventions and innovations issued to Russian or foreign citizens, shall apply not only to inventors, but to their assignees as well”5. According to this provision they were issued the privileges as declared in 1897, already after the death of Alfred Nobel: Privilege No. 1635, issued in 1899 for “Flying Bodies or Shells With Independent Forward and Rotary Propulsion,” and privilege No. 6079 on “The Tool for Ejection of the Rescue Line and Other Self-Propelling Tools,” issued in 1901 . Both these inventions concerned military equipment. Nobel estate administrators acted on behalf of Alfred Nobel. Swedish inventor W.T. Unge was the second author6. He got acquainted with Alfred Nobel in 1891, and became very much interested in the work of the inventor in the field of military technology. In the late 1880 Unge took a great interest in artillery and considered using rockets as a possible direction for artillery development, and wanted to use new and highly effective nitroglycerine in warheads of artillery shells. Alfred Nobel, Wilhelm Theodor Unge and Swedish King Oscar II co-founded Mars Company as equal partners in Sweden in 1892. The Company focused on developing, manufacturing and selling W.T. Unge’s inventions. In cooperation with Alfred Nobel he worked on a series of experiments to improve quality of ballistite invented by Nobel in 1888. All this work was financed by Alfred Nobel until his death in 1896. After his death the work continued for five years and was financed by Nobel’s estate. This helped Unge find means to register his inventions and pay his duties.