Документы жизни и деятельности семьи Нобель том 1 - Мелуа А.И
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8 See Matveichuk, A. (2006). The Sum of Ludwig Nobel’s Technologies. In: Russian Oil, No. 7, p. 113.
way of oil refining in Russia until 1917. In one of his letters to Alfred in 1884 Ludwig wrote that introduction of the continuous process became an epoch-making event. Oil product output grew sharply due to that oilers could now collect separately any fractions of distillation products of higher quality; manufacture became cheaper and consumption on the world market grew accordingly. The same system of continuous distillation was also used in manufacture of greases and lubricants.
In 1882 Ludwig submitted another application for an invention entitled “The Advanced System of Oil Heating for Any Industrial Purposes.” The patent was issued in 1883 to Ludwig Nobel under No. 10111  and operated until December 28, 18939. The new heating system did not require an artificial air current, or water steam. The system used the oil dregs formed after the distillation of oil to obtain lighting materials and lubricants. The dregs had previously not been used and were burnt in large quantities. The oil distillation dregs constituted almost two thirds of all processed crude oil, and their adequate recycling was a very important problem, which was successfully resolved by Ludwig. Ludwig Immanuelovich reported his invention before the Congress of the Imperial Russian Technical Society in 1882 during the Moscow Industrial Exhibition. In his speech he said: “The special form and arrangement of grates allowed me to burn the mazut completely with no smoke or soot in an ordinary furnace with the natural air draft, and the temperature in the furnace rose so much that pieces of ordinary iron in the smelting pot melted into liquid, of which casts could be made”10. The grates invented by Ludwig Nobel were named Nobel grates in technical literature in his honor.
The description to the privilege  said that “the system of oil heating is characterized by a certain structure and arrangement of trough-shaped grates adapted for heating boilers and various types of furnaces: ordinary and metallurgical <...> it works with the natural air draft without any pumps, and does not require use of steam or water”11. Burning is facilitated by air passing between the grates. After that Ludwig Immanuelevich began work on applying water heating to furnaces of various functions. This system was later used for iron- and copper-smelting furnaces, room stoves, baking stoves and forge hearths. By inventing this system Ludwig Immanuelevich made a significant contribution to development of oil heating in Russia.
Yet another invention facilitated further development of the oil-refining industry. It is sometimes attributed to Ludwig Nobel. In 1880 V.I. Shukhov invented the most perfect atomizer in the world to burn the liquid oil fuel, which was introduced at Nobel factories and which later became known as simply “a nobel's”. Ludwig worked with Alfred Tornquist, manager of Nobel’s Mechanical Workshops to adapt it for practical use. The oil dregs were sprayed by means of a stream of steam turning the mazut dregs from an unnecessary industrial byproduct into a valuable fuel with high heat output factor. This made a revolution in the petroleum industry and radically changed the fuel and energy balance of Russia.
In 1883 Ludwig submitted a patent application for “Furnace for Making Gas from Oil and its Products,” and was awarded patent No. 11920 in 1886 , which remained in force until 1891. This furnace was made of two separate chambers, with
9 Imperial Russian Technical Society Bulletin, 1893. V. 27, No. 12, p. 159.
10 L.E. Nobel’s report at the Congress of the Russian Technical Society in Moscow on September 1, 1882. Moscow, T.I. Gagen’s Publishers, 1882, p. 8.
11 Imperial Russian Technical Society Bulletin, 1885. V. 9, Privilege No. 174, p. 1.
each of them heating separately yet simultaneously. Oil was sprayed on the heated bricks of one of the chambers and turned into steam. The steam passed on to the other chamber where it was heated further and turned into the permanent gas, which was evacuated through the opening in the furnace. The furnace was quite productive, which was very profitable, and the generated heat was used to heat the furnace.
The next patents issued to Ludwig dealt with cast iron and foundry manufacture: Patent No. 10853 for “New Type of Moulding Sand” was obtained in October 1885
 and was valid for 10 years. A corresponding announcement was made in the “Bulletin of Finance, Industry and Trade”12 and in the IRTS Bulletin13 in 1897. This invention was widely applied in the products ordered by the Defense Ministry, and was used for metal casts. In 1887 Ludwig Nobel received patent No. 12410 for the “Crucible Furnace for Melting Steel, Cast Iron, Copper, Bronze, and Other Metals,”
 which applied the earlier discovered system of oil-based heating. In this furnace the iron turned into a thin liquid that it could be used in casting of any forms, without increasing the carbon content. These casts retained the initial flexibility and welding ability. Oil or oil dregs burnt in grates or by means of atomizers could serve as fuel for the furnace.