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Практический курс английского языка - Камянова Т.

Камянова Т. Практический курс английского языка — М.: Дом Славянской Книги, 2005. — 384 c.
ISBN 5-85550-177-9
Скачать (прямая ссылка): praktichkurseng2005.djvu
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The Government is built by the party which wins the majority at elections, and it's leader usually becomes Prime Minister. The Prime Minister appoints about twenty ministers from his party to compose the Government. New ministers are presented to the Queen for the approval. Each minister is responsible for a particular area of the Government - defence policy, financial policy, law and order, immigration, etc. Since 2 of May 1997 the Prime Minister of the UK is Anthony (Tony) Blair, the representative of the Labour Party.
1. a chamber - палата парламента
2. the House of Commons - палата общин (нижняя палата парламента)
3. the House of Lords - палата лордов (верхняя палата парламента)
4. to elect, elections - выбирать, выборы
5. general election - всеобщие выборы
6. to preside (over) - председательствовать
7. a bill - билль, законопроект
8. internal (home) policy I foreign policy - внутренняя политика / внешняя политика
9. a majority - большинство
10. a peer - пэр, лорд
11. a chairman - председатель (собрания)
12. Lord Chancellor - лорд-канцлер
13. negotiations {пі, gauji 'eifanzj - переговоры
14. a government ['gAvnmentj - правительство
In accordance with British Parliamentary Acts, every citizen of the country over the age of 18 can vote in an election, and the voting is taken by a secret ballot. The universal suffrage was introduced in Britain in 1918. Parliamentary elections (General election) must be held every five years, but the Prime Minister can decide on the exact date within these five years.
The constituents record their votes by putting a cross against their candidate's name printed on a sheet of paper. The election campaign usually lasts about three weeks. The whole country is divided into constituencies, every one of which is supposed to choose a single member. Big cities are divided into several constituencies, so-called boroughs. In each constituency the candidate who gets the largest number of votes at an election will represent that constituency in the Parliament. Unless he chooses to retire, no one can turn him out until the next general election. The more candidates of any party win at their constituency the more places has the party in the House of Commons. Only those parties enter the Parliament which win not less than 0,5 % of votes.
It was the Labour Party which won the majority of seats at the last elections (June 2001). The largest minority party became the Conservative Party which made the opposition. The third significant party was Liberal Democrats, other seats went to less significant or local parties: Scottish National Party (5 seats), Ulster Unionist Party (6 seats), Democratic Unionist Party (5 seats), Northern Irish Social-Democratic Party (3 seats).
Labour Party {social • democratic) 40,7% 413 seats
The Labour Party was set up in 1900 to fight for representation of the Labour movement - trade unions and socialist societies - in Parliament. The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It stands for creating for each person all the means to realise his true potential. Though Labour was only in government for three short periods of the 20th century, its achievements revolutionised the lives of the British people. The values Labour stands for today are to provide full employment, to ensure a fair standard of living through modernization of industry, to improve and make more democratic the system of education, to provide social and health services.
Conservative Party {conservative) 31, 7% 166 seats
The Conservative Party, often called the Tory Party, has a long history, during which it has passed through many phases and changes. For significant periods of modern British history it has been the dominant governing party, but it has also suffered defeats in the political life. The Conservative Party has remained relevant because its program and outlook have adapted to the changing social and political environment. The Conservative Party has always stood for social stability and the rights of property.
Liberal Democrats {sociai - liberal) 18,3% 52 seats
The Liberal Party, also called Whigs, exists since 1832. In the XIX century it represented the trading and manufacturing classes. It's slogan at that time was «Civil and Religious Liberty», and it was considered to be an alternative to the Conservatives and their policy which reflected the interests of people of property. For long years the Liberals had a Parliamentary majority. At the beginning of the XX century, however, the Liberals lost the support of the working- class voters, who gave their voices to the Labour Party. In 1988 the Liberal Party made an alliance with Social Democrats, and the Party of Liberal Democrats was formed.
1. to vote - голосовать
2. a secret ballot - тайное голосование
3. the universal suffrage - всеобщее избирательное право
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