Документы жизни и деятельности семьи Нобель том 5 - Мелуа А.И
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During WWI all equipment was used to arrange city defense. The article by I. Baskakov shows the documents that were issued to the Nobels in lieu of their vessels, which were taken from them temporarily to provide for military needs. The author also comments
on two instructions that were developed by Nobel Company engineers to assist with navigating the vessels.
The memorial part of the collection is represented by an article by Tepo Jokinen (Finland) who commented on the obituary of Ludwig Nobel in 1888. Some of the materials in the collection of the Polytechnic Museum of Moscow is dedicated to the heritage of the Nobel Family. The book comes with a series of photos from the exhibition.
There is no evidence that the Nobels had initiated any political reforms in Russia. Most likely they would have continued improving and developing the industrial sector. However, the Bolshevik revolt changed the history around. The Nobels were forced to sell their plant and emigrated.
Employees at Nobel enterprises had their social needs attended to. The Nobels built and maintained housing, schools, hospitals, etc. To this end, company engineers worked on design and manufacturing of heating and lighting systems, transport to bring workers to their place of employment and other equipment. In 1901 the Nobels opened the People’s House with a theater hall and a library. Trade unions at the enterprise provided much support to the workers. The Nobels financed the railroad engineer school at the Russian Technical Society since 1869, and a worker school at the Sampsonievsky Local School. A special A. Baranov Memorial Stipend was established in 1877 for the Technical School; stipends were also awarded to students in the Institute of Technology and the Mining Institute.
In the 19 th century St. Petersburg was a great place for citizens of different countries to live in. Nobel plants employed Swedes, Finns, Germans, French, etc. The city provided for religious needs of various confessions. Each community made its own contribution to development of architecture, theater, music and other spheres of culture. Separate talents as well as families and dynasties became famous, and each had their own peculiar features. The Nobels, for instance, established prizes to support engineers and researchers. Before 1896, when Alfred’s will was announced, other prizes established by the Nobels had already existed.
The Nobel Foundation, established in accordance with the will of Alfred Nobel, continued this family tradition. The fund stood out not only with the amount of money it accumulated. Based on his experience with experts from different countries, Alfred summarized the goals that all researchers regardless of their national or state origin were expected to pursue. Himself a creator of powerful explosives, Alfred founded the Nobel Peace Prize to celebrate the achievements of opponents of war. This helped him recognize that the idea of “more dynamite, fewer wars” did not work.
Seeking to promote peace, Alfred contradicted himself as an entrepreneur who should have been interested in increasing output
of dynamite. Summarizing his success as a dynamite manufacturer, Alfred would turn to peace, not war. This was perhaps the most important step in his life. He could have made this step only after very careful and deep thinking. The same moral feat was accomplished more than 50 years later by Andrey Sakharov: having created the most powerful bomb, he spent the rest of his life fighting against bombs, war and lawlessness.
In the first years of the 20th century the Nobels’ entrepreneurship talent continued bringing useful results. At the same time, the Nobel phenomenon gradually acquired other forms of participation in societal life. With every year the authority of the Nobel Foundation and its prizes grew. Some participants of this process are well-known: changing heads of state, presidents of the Nobel Fund, experts... However, no single person or group can claim all the recognition for the success of more than 100 years of Nobel Fund activities. We speak of the Nobel movement as a social phenomenon of the 20th century. As a phenomenon that first formed in the 19th century. As a phenomenon that remains an important part of the society’s recent history that still affects European development today.
Комментарий И. Я. Баскакова* к фотоочерку «Центральный военно-морской музей»
Санкт-Петербург был основным городом, на верфях которого Нобели реализовали большую часть своих судостроительных и кораблестроительных проектов. По сравнению с другими городами России (Нижний Новгород, Ревель, Коломна, Рыбинск, Ярославль, Баку и др.) и зарубежными странами (Швеция, Германия, Финляндия, Австрия), в которых выполнялись заказы Нобелей, именно в Санкт-Петербурге работала большая группа инженеров и конструкторов на заводе «Людвиг Нобель», проектировавших суда и корабли, катеры, оборудование и приборы, вооружение для них. Часть изделий того времени, макеты некоторых судов и кораблей, документы представлены в Центральном военноморском музее в Санкт-Петербурге.